Monday, September 1, 2014

Oil-free Baked Falafel

In my last post, I shared a hummus recipe that got some really kind feedback, well today I’ve got another chickpea-based Middle Eastern inspired recipe: oil-free baked falafel.

As I mentioned in my post about mung beans, legumes are one of the healthiest foods available worldwide, and some recent research suggests that bean intake is the most important factor associated with longer lifespans! Not only this, but beans are some of the cheapest foods making their nutrition value a huge bang for the buck!

This falafel recipe is super easy, essentially fool-proof, and tastes phenomenal.

I’m also including a very basic tahini dressing recipe. This is one of those once-in-a-while foods. Tahini is a thick paste made from pulverized sesame seeds, which sounds healthy on its face. However, it is very high in calories with most of those calories coming from fat. Unfortunately, most of that fat comes from Omega-6, an essential fatty acid, but one that most westerners get too much of in relation to their Omega-3 consumption. It is also possible for tahini to oxidize as it ages, which can cause the release of free radicals in your body.

That said few things are so cut and dry. Tahini is rich in phosphorus, lecithin, magnesium, potassium and iron. It’s also a good source of methionine and very high in calcium. It also boasts vitamin E and many of the B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5 and B15). Most tahini’s are around 20% protein as well. So feel free to weight the costs for yourself. If you’re healthy and fit, including tahini in your diet won’t have a negative impact on your health when consumed sparingly.

Oil-free Falafel:

1 ½ cups dried chickpeas
2-3 cloves fresh garlic
1 small sweet onion
1 cup fresh parsley (it’s important to use fresh for this recipe)
Juice from ½ of a lemon
1 flax egg (1 tablespoon ground flax in 1 tablespoon of water)
Pinch of baking soda
1 tablespoon cumin
Black pepper and salt to taste

Soak the chickpeas overnight or for several hours. Try adding some citrus (like apple cider vinegar) to speed up the process and help with digestibility. Once the beans can be crushed by pinching them between your fingers they are ready. (Note: if you don’t have time to soak them, boil the chickpeas until they are about half cooked. Roughly 30 minutes).

Now, put all of the above ingredients into a food processor or hand held blender. Process until well combined and relatively processed, but not completely smooth. Stop the food processor and push the ingredients down towards the blends when needed. The entire mixture should turn into a light green from the parsley and have a pleasant cumin smell.
Now pre-heat the oven to 350 and line a large baking pan with parchment paper. Using a tablespoon, scoop out the mixture into small 2 inch balls and put onto the pan. Bake for 10 – 12 minutes and check. The falafel balls should begin to brown. Flip them over and return to the oven for another 8 – 10 minutes. Take out and let cool.

While the falafels are cooking making the tahini sauce.

Tahini sauce:

2 tablespoons tahini
Juice of 1 lemon
Onion powder
¾ cup water
1 teaspoon apple cider vinegar
Salt and pepper to taste

Place all ingredients in a bowl and whisk until well combined and smooth.

As always the information presented in this blog is for educational purposes only. It should not be considered as specific medical, nutritional, lifestyle, or other health-related advice.

Friday, August 15, 2014

Cumin-spiced Hummus and Gluten-free Lentil Flatbread

I've been told that in certain parts of Asia, every family has their own kimchi recipe. You can travel to a dozen different towns, and in each one, you’ll experience a dozen different varieties of the fermented dish. 

Hummus is like that in the United States… particularly among vegan bloggers. And today I’m going to share with you one of my oil-free hummus’.

Hummus is great as either a snack, appetizer, or as part of dinner. It can be used as a simple dip or used as a dressing. Literally, there is no limit to what you can do with this versatile spread. Typically made from cooked chickpeas, it has a nice blend of the macro-nutrients, and also offers several micro-nutrients as only plant-based foods can provide!

This recipe is for a simple and fast hummus and can be made with either canned or soaked and cooked chickpeas. Feel free to stray from the original recipe and start to create your very own variety!

Makes 2-3 servings

1 or 2 cans of chickpeas or 1 cup cooked chickpeas*
1 teaspoon of tahini
Juice of 1 lemon or 1 tablespoon of lemon juice
1 bayleaf
1 clove of garlic
Cumin seeds (or powder), salt, and black pepper to taste

Put all of the ingredients into a blender or food processor (a hand blender also works well) and blend until smooth and creamy. Slowly add water or veggie broth for desired texture. Taste the hummus and adjust spices and seasoning as needed or desired.

*Pro tip - save the water from the can to use for the hummus

Lentil Flatbread

Now hummus is amazingly healthy, especially when it’s served with veggies like carrots, bell peppers, or cabbage. However, if you are looking for something a little hardier, give this great BYOL-original Lentil and brown rice flatbread a try! Not only is the bread made from whole food ingredients rather than a refined flour, it only requires four essential ingredients, and can be made relatively quickly when in a bind! That being said, I suggest soaking the lentils and rice over night to help with digestibility.

While I’m suggesting pairing it with hummus here, the bread makes great toast with apple butter for breakfast, is perfect with all types of soups, Indian daals and curries, a nice snack with your afternoon mate, and can easily be brought to work or a picnic (It is literally the easiest way to BYOL!) You can also change the thickness by altering how long you let the bread rise and by how thick you make the batter.

Makes One Flatbread loaf

½ cup green or brown lentils (soaked)
½ cup brown rice (soaked)
½ teaspoon or half of an 8 gram packet of Active Dry Yeast
½ teaspoon baking powder*
¼ - ½ cup of veggie broth or water
Add optional spices and herbs such as a bayleaf, basil, or rosemary.

After soaking and rinsing the lentils and rice, put them either in a blender or food processor (again, a hand blender can work well for this). As you blend, slowly add a little bit of water or broth until you start to reach a dough-like consistency. It should be a little runny. Then add the baking powder and active yeast. Now let the mixture sit for 45 minutes to one hour. Pour the batter onto a parchment paper lined baking pan or pizza stone (I often use my cast iron pan) and place into the oven for 20 -25 minutes on 350. Once you’ve achieved the desired crispiness of the bread, remove from the oven and let cool. 

I hope two recipes help power your weekend! 

* If you are highly sensitive to gluten, or have celiac disease, make sure you get a certified gluten-free baking powder. 

As always the information presented in this blog is for educational purposes only. It should not be considered as specific medical, nutritional, lifestyle, or other health-related advice.

Friday, August 1, 2014

Yerba Mate: A beautiful South American Tradition

As many of you know, I was recently traveling in Buenos Aires. The city is beautiful and rich with tradition. While Buenos Aires operates on a pretty regular schedule, most still practice what is known as “merienda” which is like an afternoon siesta, typically in the middle or later part of the afternoon.  Part of this break includes sharing Yerba Mate (In Argentina it’s pronounce Chur-ba Mate).

Yerba Mate is a South American tea that is most popular in Argentina and Uruguay and in some southern parts of Brazil. It is made by steeping the ground leaves and steams of the yerba mate plant. In America you can find Yerba Mate tea bags, however, that is not how you should enjoy it. Instead, you serve the loose leaf Yerba in a gourd or small container called "mate" (which is Spanish for gourd) and drink small “shots” of tea through a metal straw known as a bombilla (bom-bish-a). 

This is where most American’s get uncomfortable. Because Argentina is a much more open and receptive society (I guess that is a result of not being settled by Puritans!) everyone shares the same mate and the same bombilla. Basically you pour hot (but not boiling) water onto the yerba and then sip the water until there is none left. Then you pour more water in the mate and pass it to the next person. I shared mate with friends while watching Argentina defeat the Netherlands to advance to the World Cup final. It was such a fantastic moment and memory, made all the more special by sharing mate. 

Historically, yerba mate has been being enjoyed since before Europeans arrived on the American continent. In the early 16th century, Juan de SolĂ­s, a Spanish explorer of South America's famed La Plata River, reported that the Guarani Indians of Paraguay brewed a leaf tea that "produced exhilaration and relief from fatigue." Today it is commonly drank multiple times a day. Often with toast, jams, or dulce de leche for breakfast or as a snack. 

Good quality Yerba Mate is available both online and in most health food stores in the US, and you can easily find inexpensive mates and bombilla online as well.

What better way than to reconnect with friends and family than by sharing mate while discussing the day?

Besides being a fun way of reconnecting with loved ones, yerba mate also has some amazing health benefits as it contains numerous nutrients. While it does have caffeine, its content varies, and can range between 25 – 75% less caffeine than a standard cup of coffee. However, according to Brendan Brazier, the caffeine in yerba mate does not cause a spike in cortisol the same way coffee does. As a result, some sensitive to the caffeine in coffees and teas may not be impacted by the caffeine in mate. That said, the Argentine futbol star Lionel Messi drinks mate before every single match, to help energize him to perform on the pitch, and former Ironman athlete Brendan Brazier used it before races.

The Pope and Lionel Messi both enjoying mate.

Yerba mate has roughly 90% more antioxidants than green tea, making this a true powerhouse drink. It contains vitamins B-1, B-2, A, riboflavin, carotene, colin, pantothenic acid, inositol and 15 types of aminoacids! It also contains a significant quantity of potassium, sodium, and magnesium.

Thanks to the antioxidant called polyphenols, yerba mate can help boost immune function and can also slow the signs of aging while also helping to detox the body. Furthermore, (and I almost feel like Dr. Oz for saying this) but several research article report that the consumption of Yerba Mate can help reduce the accumulation of lipids in adipocytes, (or in common talk, can help reduce fat storage) both of which lead to weight gain. Another study done on post pregnancy women showed that Mate consumption can decrease overall calorie consumption, suggesting that Yerba Mate may help one lose weight, and keep it off once they do.

Perhaps we should all start partaking in the merienda’s of South America! Clearly it will benefit our health! 


Just a few photos from the trip. Enjoy

Heckman, MA. Et al. “Caffeine in foods: a comprehensive review on consumption, functionality, safety, and regulatory matters.” Journal of Food Science. 2010.

Po, E. et al. “The Effect of Yerba Mate Supplementation on the Productive Performance of Dorper Ewes and their Progeny.” Asian-Australas Journal of Animal Science July 2012.

Kang, Young-Rye et al. “Anti-Obesity and Anti-diabetic effects of Yerba Mate in C57BL mice fed a high-fat diet.” Laboratory Animal Research March 2012.

As always the information presented in this blog is for educational purposes only. It should not be considered as specific medical, nutritional, lifestyle, or other health-related advice.

Wednesday, July 16, 2014

Beth's Amazing Story

Once again, I'm very happy to share the success of another one of my friends. This story shows the dramatic impact of cleaning one's diet can make. It also shows the benefits that can be gained without without having to go completely one way or another. I'd like to thank Beth and Nick for the opportunity to help them, but also for their willingness to share their successes. I'd also like to publicly congratulate them on their recent engagement! 

The 2013 holiday season came and went, but those extra pounds I inevitably put on during it chose to stay behind. Beyond frustrated and angry at myself for allowing this to happen yet again, I decided “Ok, this weekend is my last hoorah, then I’m going on a strict diet.” That particular weekend, my boyfriend Nick and I planned a day trip to NYC to visit an old college friend, Anthony. Anthony is a dedicated vegan, and when Nick and I told him we were going on diets, his response back to us was, “Don’t diet, change your diet.” Those wise words opened the door to one of the most informative conversations of my life.

Though Anthony has tried to help us change our diets in the past, this time Nick and I actually listened and wanted to learn how we could not just diet to lose those pesky holiday pounds, but also be healthier overall. It’s amazing the things you can learn by being open minded and willing to listen. That day, Anthony even cooked us an awesome vegan lunch, courtesy BYOL’s Green Mac N “Cheese” recipe. Always skeptical that vegan food would never fill me up and leave me still hungry, boy was I pleasantly surprised. It not only tasted awesome, but I was stuffed by the end of my meal.

Along with wanting to lose weight and be healthier, I also work in breast cancer research, and seeing the devastation that this disease affects on women every day also became incentive for me to change my eating habits. It is traumatizing to see how common the disease is and how more common it is becoming in increasingly younger women. When you start to see patients come through the door who are younger than you, and I'm only 26, you begin to realize something is just not right. Everyday at work I ask myself, like many people I’m sure, what is the cause of this disease? Well, after our talk with Anthony, I’m more convinced that diet plays a significant role. There are many things in life we have absolutely no control over, but diet is something that we do. If changing my diet can help lower my risk for not just cancer, but other common diseases, such as heart disease, I know I am doing something right for my body.

So I had my motivation, but now I needed to start somewhere. I always thought I was healthy enough, as ate lots of fruits and vegetables to begin with, exercised and drank lots of water, but it wasn't until I started to cut things out of my diet, that I realized how unhealthy I actually was. And how terribly I was actually feeling. Nick and I both decided to do this together and we started cutting out soda, milk, fast food, a lot of meat and candy. Did we and do we have days where we cheat? Yes, I am the first person to admit we are not perfect, and this change is still a work in progress for both of us. But the progress we have both made so far is pretty amazing.

Since changing my diet, I have lost a solid 15 pounds and kept it off. Being that I am 5’7”, losing 15 pounds is not that noticeable when you look at me, but I am able to feel the difference. I have also struggled with running in the past and I now find running easier. I have more energy, throughout the day and during my workouts, and I just feel better. I don’t stress out about needing to make sure I burn enough calories when I work out because I know the majority of what I put in my body now is good for me. All the things that Anthony told us would start happening were happening.  

I also noticed that things I used to enjoy eating, I could no longer eat without getting a stomachache or headache. For example, one of my favorite candies used to be Swedish Fish. One afternoon a co-worker and I decided to splurge and get a mini bag of them from the vending machine downstairs. To my surprise, they tasted nothing like they used to and I found I couldn't finish them. Yep, I had a full-blown stomachache halfway through my bag. I felt like I was eating plastic and the sad part of this experience was, I bought them to “treat” myself. I was actually in awe at the whole experience and this only furthered my motivate not give up and to work harder to live a healthier lifestyle.

While I still have a significant amount of work to do, I am proud at how far I have come so far from where I was six months ago. I am also very thankful to have a friend like Anthony who cares enough about us to help us get on the right path and teach us all we need to know about being healthier, while never being judgmental or dogmatic. I look back now and I can’t imagine living my life with the same everyday eating habits I once had. I hope that in another six months, I can look back at this very moment and see that I have made even more progress.

As always the information presented in this blog is for educational purposes only. It should not be considered as specific medical, nutritional, lifestyle, or other health-related advice.

Tuesday, July 1, 2014

TMAO: A Toxic Substance Formed When You Eat Meat Can Make You … Dead Meat

Guest Post by: Robert Ostfeld, M.D., M.Sc. 

We can add another reason to the list of why we should not eat meat. If the saturated fat and cholesterol in meat were not enough, there is a newly identified toxic kid on the block: trimethylamineoxide (TMAO).1,2

When we eat red meat, its carnitine interacts with our gut bacteria, forming trimethylamine, which is then metabolized by the liver into TMAO. And it appears that TMAO is not our friend.1,2

TMAO promotes the formation of cholesterol plaques in our blood vessels, which make them less healthy and may lead to heart attack, stroke, and death. TMAO reduces our body’s ability to excrete cholesterol.1,2 And, if that is not bad enough, TMAO may be linked to death from prostate cancer.3

The good news is that people who eat an exclusively plant-based diet appear to form little TMAO. In fact, when researchers fed steak to a vegan, virtually no TMAO was made. Why is that? Vegans, it seems, do not select for the specific gut bacteria that lead to the formation of TMAO, whereas meat eaters do. Hence, it’s as if plants create a coat of armor in our stomachs, protecting us when they are not even there.

So if we’re protected by plants, is it okay for us to eat steak for just a few days? Are we protected from TMAO? It appears that we may not be. The trillions of bacteria in our gut change very quickly. In fact, they may meaningfully shift even within one to two days!4 So aside from the many other deleterious effects of meat, even one day of steak could cut a chink in the natural armor afforded us by eating plants.

Notably, red meat is not the only source of TMAO. Choline, which is found in chicken, fish, dairy ― and even plants ― is another. Choline is structurally similar to the carnitine in red meat, and with the help of the same gut bacteria, also forms TMAO. Accordingly, when investigators fed omnivores an egg, they made TMAO.1

Although we have no dietary need for carnitine, we do require dietary choline. So how can we get the choline we require without the unwanted company of toxic TMAO? The answer appears to be in the armor. Eating a plant-based diet selects for gut bacteria that do not lead to the formation of TMAO.2 So even though we are eating choline in plants, our stomach’s plant-derived protection is in place, practically freeing us from concern about TMAO.

Science’s understanding of the interaction of our diet and gut bacteria and their influence on our health is at an early stage. However, evidence is mounting that a plant-based diet may be beneficial for this interaction in many ways. Yet another reason to go (or stay) plant based!

Robert Ostfeld, M.D., M.Sc.

As always the information presented in this blog is for educational purposes only. It should not be considered as specific medical, nutritional, lifestyle, or other health-related advice.

Thursday, June 19, 2014

The Electrolyte Myth

As the Old Man Winter finally settles into its long solstice slumber, and the temperature and humidity have begun to rise, I've already started to hear runners and cyclist talking about how many electrolytes they need to consume per hour in order to not only prevent cramping, but to continue exercising at a high level of performance.

However, as is so often the case, it appears the belief that endurance athletes need to replenish electrolytes is a bit exaggerated.

Electrolytes are sodium ions and they make up the bulk of the “salty” non-water part of your sweat. Potassium is also excreted in sweat, but electrolytes are lost 10 times faster than potassium.

While electrolytes are lost when you sweat, sweating actually increases the concentration of electrolytes in your body. This is because when you sweat, you are excreting more water than electrolytes. Just as you don’t loose potassium and electrolytes at the same rate, you don’t loose water and electrolytes at the same rate. The result is, as you become dehydrated – meaning you have less water in your blood – the sodium to water ratio also changes, causing a higher concentration of sodium.

In fact, some research shows that even after exhaustive exercise, the amount of sodium lost is quite small. This was supported by double blind placebo test, which demonstrated that people who consume sodium-free (electrolyte-free) sports drinks performed at the same levels as those who received sports drinks with added sodium.

Furthermore, there is evidence that even electrolyte-added sports drinks cannot prevent a drop in blood sodium levels, because the drinks hydrate you more than they replace electrolytes. Again changing the sodium - water ratio in your body.

However, that doesn’t mean that sports drinks are completely worthless. Drinks like Gatorade have the simple sugars needed to help replenish the carbohydrates burned by the body during long periods of exercise as well as the water needed to help stave off dehydration. In a study performed at the University of Texas in Austin, they found that male athletes experienced a 6 percent improvement in sprinting (on a bike) when they consumed enough water to remain properly hydrated when compared to a group which drank water, but didn’t consume enough water to stave off  dehydration. This shouldn't be all that surprising... dehydration hurts performance. 

The final word: adding electrolytes does not appear to be needed, especially for performances that are less than 2 hours in duration. However learning to properly fuel your body is still an important and necessary skill, particularly when exercising in the heat. Experiment and find out what works for you. Even if the research doesn't support it, placebos can have a strong performance enhancing ability. Now go get outside!  

Brazier, Brendan, Thrive Fitness; The Vegan-Based Training Program for Maximum Strength, Health, and Fitness. Da Capo Press, 2009.

Burke, L. M.; et al., “Carbohydrates for training and competition.” Journal of Sports Sciences 2011, 29 (sup1), S17-S27.

Coyle, E. F., “Fluid and fuel intake during exercise.” Journal of Sports Sciences 2004, 22 (1), 39-55.

Gisolfi, C.; et. al. “Intestinal fluid absorption during exercise: role of sport drink osmolality and [Na+].” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2001, 33 (6), 907-915.

Larson-Meyer, D. Enette, Vegetarian Sports Nutrition: Food Choices and Eating Plans for Fitness and Performance. Human Kinetics, 2007.

(Note Runner'sConnect also has an article on electrolyte consumption, and they were kind enough to point me to some of the articles they consulted.) 

As always the information presented in this blog is for educational purposes only. It should not be considered as specific medical, nutritional, lifestyle, or other health-related advice.

Sunday, June 1, 2014

Fish, our oceans, and our health part I

Last summer I had a argument conversation with a family member who is the typical gun-totten, freedom-lovin’ ‘Merican that has come to personify the American Right. We don’t always see eye-to-eye, as we are essentially polar opposites, but he is family and has always been there for me when I needed him (typically arriving 20 minutes late, but still… eventually he’s there). Basically the conversation was about our diets impact on the environment - he categorically and instantly argued that fishermen are catching record levels of fish, as an indication that the world’s oceans are perfectly healthy.

While I will probably never convince him otherwise, the evidence is pretty stark in the opposite direction.  So today I’d like to talk about the choices you have: plant-based versus meat-based diets, and how they influence the marine environment. These choices we make have a dramatic effect, and it’s helpful to understand the impacts some of our choices have on the global environment. Because this is such a long post, I've decided to break it into three parts. This is Part I which will focus on our current fishing practices. Part II will focus on Farmed Fish, and finally Part III will talk about some of the health concerns involved in eating fish.

The oceans are currently stressed from the amount of fishing and unfortunately, farmed fish are no better of a choice, and come with their own host of problems (discussed in Part II). Today our global fish population is experiencing something of a crisis - and the idea that our oceans are inexhaustible can no longer go unnoticed.

Beginning in the mid-20th century, international efforts to increase the availability and affordability of protein-rich foods led to concerted government efforts to increase fishing capacity. Favorable policies and government subsides spawned a rapid rise of big industrial fishing operations.

If you look at this graph from a 2003 paper in Nature, they show, in stark terms, the decline of large predators in the ocean. These are the most popular fish to hunt and eat and as the chart demonstrates, there has been nearly a 90% decline in their overall populations. The graph can be read as an indicator of the concentration of fish remaining in the ocean. As Ivan Macfadyen recently wrote in his piece for the Herald, “The Ocean is broken.”

Another figure to help demonstrate this point is the total number of fish we bring in. According to international law, when fish are brought to port, fishermen are required to report their catches; and various organizations have kept track of these numbers since the 1960s. Since the ’90s, the total number of fish caught globally has leveled out. In 1989, 90 million metric tons of fish were taken from the ocean, representing a high-water mark. We have maxed out the ocean’s ability to produce since then.

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), of the 600 marine fish stocks they monitor, 52% have been fully exploited and all of the 17 primary fishing stocks worldwide are either overexploited or on the verge of collapse. In 2003, a report announced that industrial fishing had reduced the number of large ocean fish to just 10% of their pre-industrial population. Examples of this collapse are the Grand Banks near Newfoundland and the Georges Banks of New England, both once considered the most productive fishing grounds on the planet, and both now nearly devoid of life.

While still hotly debated, many scientists are now supporting the theory that if current practices continue, all of the world’s fisheries could collapse by 2048.

Another indication of stress in the ocean is the average trophic level of fish caught throughout the globe. Harking back to high school biology class, a trophic level is the position in the food chain for a particular species. If a fish eats algae, it’s at the first tropic level. If it’s a carnivore that eats smaller fish, then it’s one level up and so it continues up to the largest predators in the oceans. Because the higher trophic-level fish, such as swordfish or tuna, bring in such large profits (some tuna sell for over $1 million dollars!) these are the preferred fish for fishermen. However, as their populations have declined, they’ve become more difficult to catch. The result is that fishermen have moved down the trophic-level. These fish have less value per pound but are currently more available than the higher trophic-level fish.

The impact of this is that we are now literally scraping the bottom of the ocean floors for whatever is left. Having to move down on the trophic-level is a dramatic indication that we have fished beyond sustainable levels.

Besides reducing the populations of the fish fisherman actually want to catch, we have also had a negative impact on less desirable species. Due to a process known as by-catch- fish unintentionally caught- many species have become endangered simply because we want to eat other fish. Sharks and more surprisingly seagulls have been large victims of this wasteful practice. Feel free to google image this. The images are too depressing for me to put up.

Finally, bottom trawling is, perhaps, the worst of all fishing practices. Basically, fisherman drag nets across the bottom of the ocean floor and gather everything in their wake. At the surface, they discard as much as 70% of what they pull up – all of it dead. It is a common practice used when shrimping. 

Unfortunatelythe giant marlin that Santiago wrestled in Hemingway's "The Old Man and Sea" is becoming increasingly rare, and some day may only be found in the imagination of fiction. These issues about our environment and ecology need to be part of the public discourse. We need to face these hard truths if a true solution is to be found. 

Additional Reading:

“Overfishing: Plenty of Fish in the Sea? Not Always.” National Geographic.

Ivan Macfadyen, “The Ocean is Broken.”

Pauly, D., et all. “Towards sustainability in world fishers,” Nature 2002.

General Situation of World Fish Stocks, United Nations Food Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Harrington, J.R., et all., “Wasted Fishery Resources: Discarded By-Catch in the USA.” Fish and Fisheries 6.

Janicke Nordgreen, et all., “Thermonociception in fish: Effect of two different doses of morphine on thermal threshold and post-test behavior in goldfish.”Elsevier

Rosamond L. Naylor, et all., “Effect of Aquaculture on World Fish Supplies,” Nature Vol. 405, June, 2000.

Oppenlander, Richard. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. New York, Langdon Street Press, 2013. 

As always the information presented in this blog is for educational purposes only. It should not be considered as specific medical, nutritional, lifestyle, or other health-related advice.